What's this?

Field Experiences of Ileitis Oral Vaccine in Spain

Experiencias de Campo con la vacuna oral para la Ileitis en España.

J.L. Lorenzo, M.L. Rosas, P. RubioMaporc, San Cristobal de Segovia (Segovia), Spain;  Dept. Sanidad Animal, Facultad Veterinaria, Universidad de León (León) , Spain  

Introduction
Ileitis is a very common disease, and its prevalence is very high on most of our farms. Ileitis oral vaccine is a new tool which can be used by practitioners in order to control both the disease and economic losses produced in the farm. The objective of this study was to compare performance results after vaccination in three different commercial farms controlled by our practice in Segovia area.

Materials and Methods

Case 1: High health nucleus farrow-to-finish farm of 800 sows with a 3 weeks rhythm. The animals were positive only to Lawsonia intracellularis and Streptococcus suis, and were negative to the other frequent pathogens in swine. They were Lawsonia positive since they arrived and enteric disorders related to ileitis were always present at fattening facilities confirmed by autopsy, faecal PCR and ELISA. However there was an increase in mortality since October 2005, and a substantial decrease in animal growth. Piglets were vaccinated (Enterisol® Ileitis) by drench since October 2005. The monitored parameters were average daily weight gain (ADWG), mortality rate, runts percentage and medication cost.

Case 2: Farrow-to-finish farm of 120 sows. On this farm the feed had never been medicated before ileitis appeared in the fattening place. However, the disease circulated continuously in dry sows, accounting for 2% of sow deaths. Vaccination started in January 2006. The monitored parameters were monthly enteric medication cost (including feed, water and injectable drugs) and mortality rate.

Case 3: Farrow-to-finish farm with 400 sows. Ileitis was present and of swine dysentery (Brachyspira hyodisenteriae) had been diagnosed on this farm for some years. Initially our practice thought that vaccination might entail an added cost to medication expenses. Historically, the percentage of mortality between weaning and the slaughterhouse was very high, surpassing 25% in some months (October 2005 and January 2006). Vaccination on this farm began in February 2006. The monitored parameters were monthly enteric medication cost (including feed, water and injectable drugs) and mortality rate.

Results
Case 1: The results after vaccination on this farm were excellent (Table 1). Five months after the beginning of vaccination, data indicated a very substantial reduction both on the percentage of deaths (-67%) and runts (-97%). Medication cost fell by 64%. Finally, the results indicated a substantial improvement in growth (+12%). The economic

return of ileitis oral vaccination was very positive.

Table 1. Relevant parameters in Case 1
                                         Control               Vaccine           Difference
# piglets tested               3856                        3483                          --
Mortality (%)                   9                                3                              -6
Runts (%)                        15                            0,5                         -14.5
Medication (€/sow)        48                           17.1                       -30.9
ADWG 80-150 d               887                         998                        +111

Case 2: Results were very satisfactory (Graph 1). After vaccination feed medication withdrawal was possible. Only some medications in water for sporadic E. coli diarrhoea outbreaks in fattening pigs and piglets were kept. By June there was a decrease in mortality and a return to regular consumption of medication (mainly due to the vaccine cost).

Graph 1. Medication cost (columns) and mortality (line) in Case 2. 

Case 3: The results (Graph 2) indicated that medication cost decreased, even with the presence of chronic dysentery in the farm. Consumption of medication was higher before vaccination started, and fell as more animals were vaccinated. Mortality dropped very substantially, reaching 7% in August.

Graph 2. Medication cost (columns) and mortality (line) in Case 3.


Discussion
Our practice field experience indicated that satisfactory results are obtained with ileitis oral vaccine. After vaccination better growth, less mortality and a reduction of the medication cost were observed. The economic return of ileitis oral vaccine was the most attractive farm benefit.